NPR Picks


Arctic's Temperature Continues To Run Hot, Latest 'Report Card' Shows

"The Arctic is a huge, icy cap on the planet that acts like a global air conditioner. But the air conditioner is breaking down, according to scientists who issued a grim "report card" on the Arctic today."

"They say the North Pole continues to warm at an alarming pace — twice the rate as the rest of the planet, on average. This year was the Arctic's second-warmest in at least 1,500 years, and possibly longer. The warmest year ever was 2016."

"Researchers say there was less winter ice in the Arctic Ocean than ever observed. And ocean water in parts of the polar Barents and Chukchi seas was a whopping 7 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than just a few decades ago."

"It's a trend that has some calling the state of the Arctic a "new normal." Arctic scientist Jeremy Mathis says that term doesn't work for him."


Why A Pill That's 4 Cents In Tanzania Costs Up To $400 In The U.S.

"Two pills to wipe out hookworm could cost you four cents. Or $400."

"It just depends where you live."

"The four cents is in Tanzania. That'll cover the two pills it takes to knock out the intestinal parasite. But in the United States, where hookworm has reemerged, the price for two 200 mg tablets of albendazole can cost as much as $400."

"The pill will put an end to the problems hookworm can cause, such as anemia and protein deficiency as well as stunting growth in children."

"And it's not just a problem with the anti-hookworm pill. Drugs for diseases of the developing world, in particular the so-called "neglected tropical diseases" like hookworm and leishmaniasis, are enormously more expensive in the United States than in the developing world."

"'There really is no good reason for this price,' says Dr. Jonathan Alpern of the albendazole price tag. Alpern works for the HealthPartners Institute, the research division of a health-care organization in Minnesota."



In The U.S., Flu Season Could Be Unusually Harsh This Year

"Health officials are warning that the United States may have an unusually harsh flu season this year."

"But they stress that flu seasons are notoriously difficult to predict, and it's far too early to know for sure what may happen."

"The concern stems from several factors, including signs that the season started a few weeks earlier than usual. 'When you have an early start with regional outbreaks, that is generally not a good sign,' says Anthony Fauci, who directs the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 'Sometimes that's the forerunner of a serious season'."

"An early start could mean a longer season, which could mean more people end up getting infected with the flu."

"Another reason for concern is that Australia had a severe flu season this year."


Strange Parallels: Alternative Histories In Physics And Culture

"Certain pivotal events in history seem to open up a schism in time, separating what really happened from countless other 'what ifs.'"

"World War II, with its succession of controversial decisions, included many such pivotal moments, culminating in President Truman's order to launch atomic bombs on Japan. Physicists were sharply divided about that choice: Some such as Albert Einstein regretted the bomb's development — given that the Germans, as it turned out, had made little progress — and others, such as John Wheeler, one of its many developers in the Manhattan Project, argued that it should have been built and launched earlier to end the war sooner and save millions of lives. Wheeler's argument was personal; his younger brother Joe, a soldier in combat, had sent him a postcard with the plea "hurry up!" shortly before being killed."

"Speculative fiction writers mined the ambiguities of World War II with great passion, producing such seminal works as The Garden of Forking Paths by Jorge Luis Borges (who wrote the piece near the start of the war, and set it in World War I), and The Man in the High Castle by Philip K. Dick (who created his bold vision of an alternative ending to WWII with Axis victors long after its real finale). Each author pondered time as a maze of ever-splitting paths, in which though we happen to find ourselves on one succession of strands, there are countless other choices that each have their own reality."



What Would Enrico Fermi Think Of Science Today?

"I have been living with Enrico Fermi for the past four years."

"Well, I have been living with him metaphorically — as I have just completed a full-scale biography of Fermi. So, I've been spending a lot of time thinking about how he would view today's scientific landscape."

"Fermi's contributions to physics were so broad ranging, his interests so wide, that he made a mark in virtually every area of the field. I find it irresistible to speculate what he would make of physics today or how he would view some of our broader debates on the role of science and society."

"Certain areas of physics have entered a true golden age — and Fermi would be absolutely delighted. Particle physicists have spent the past four decades piecing together the "Standard Model," and it seems to work, at least as far as it goes. The quark theory of matter, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions, and the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2015 would fascinate and please him immensely. He was, after all, one of the first physicists to explore the atomic nucleus with high-energy accelerators."


This Year's Hurricane Season Was Intense. Is It A Taste Of The Future?

"With the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season finally over, scientists are taking stock of what they say was a monumental year."

"A total of 10 hurricanes swept the region. Six were major storms of Category 3 or higher, and three of those were Category 4 or higher when they made landfall, spreading havoc from the Caribbean to Texas."

"The Atlantic Ocean is vast and has always made its own weather. But a typical year sees about six hurricanes, not 10. And three strong hurricanes hitting land — Harvey, Irma and Maria — is extraordinary."

So what's going on?

Meteorologist Kevin Trenberth at the National Center for Atmospheric Research says hurricanes feed off ocean heat. "Having high ocean heat content below the surface means that they can be sustained and remain stronger, more intense than they otherwise would," he says.


In 'Bombshell,' The Double Identity Of Hollywood Star Hedy Lamarr

"If you're reading this through some kind of Bluetooth or Wi-Fi gadget, here's an interesting fact: Some ideas behind that technology can be traced back to a famous actress from the 1930s. Her name was Hedy Lamarr."

"The story of this stunning beauty of the silver screen is told in the new documentary Bombshell. From a scandalous debut in the pre-war European film Ecstasy to Hollywood films including Algiers and Samson And Delilah, the documentary tells little-known details of how she was worked grueling days by Hollywood producers and spent her nights in her own laboratory where she loved to invent."

"'She had this double identity that is so fascinating to all of us,' says Alexandra Dean, the director of Bombshell. "She was on sound stages all day with Clark Gable, Spencer Tracy, Jimmy Stewart – I mean, the biggest stars. And at night, she was going home and inventing. And she was inventing with her sometime-boyfriend, Howard Hughes."

"'He gave her the laboratory; he gave her access to his chemists. So she had people helping her with her ideas. And I think that's what gave her the bold vision for the invention that she would become famous for.'"



A Tax That Would Hurt Science's Most Valuable — And Vulnerable

"As the tax bill moves through Congress, an issue has risen that hits dangerously close to U.S. efforts in science."

"The problem focuses on a provision that would tax graduate students for tuition waivers that universities set up long ago. These waivers were meant to foster advanced education in the sciences and elsewhere. The change in the tax law would mean graduate students would be hit with whopping tax bills for "income" they never received. For more on the proposed changes and reaction to them go herehere and here."

"Today, however, I thought it might be useful to briefly review how graduate education in the U.S. works. This might help to explain why changing the tax code can have profound impacts on science (in what follows I am going focus solely on the sciences)."

"A student will spend anywhere between five and seven years completing the work for a Ph.D. in the sciences. It begins with a year or so of intensive classes. During this period, students basically give up on the idea of sleep for months at a time to grind through one impossible homework set after another."



World's Largest Battery Is Turned On In Australia As Tesla Ties Into Power Grid

"The power grid in South Australia now includes a huge Tesla battery tied to a wind farm, allowing the system to supply electricity around the clock. The battery was installed well before Tesla CEO Elon Musk's 100-day guarantee lapsed — and just in time for the start of summer."

"'This is history in the making,' South Australia Premier Jay Weatherill said of the battery system, which sits next to wind turbines at the Horndale Power Reserve."

"The battery was linked to the grid 63 days after the contract was signed, in a deal between Tesla, the French renewable energy company Neoen and the South Australian government. Musk had said Tesla could have the battery in place within 100 days or it would be free."

"'South Australia is now leading the world in dispatchable renewable energy, delivered to homes and businesses 24/7,' Weatherill said in a statement about the installation."


The Tree That Rocked The Music Industry

"Chicago Symphony Orchestra cellist Dan Katz has two cellos. The better one — the one he prefers to play with the orchestra — is 200 years old and has rosewood tuning pegs. When the orchestra went on an 11-concert European tour in January, he purposefully left it home."

"'I worry with that instrument about international travel now, because of those pegs,' Katz said after rehearsing for a performance of Schubert's Ninth Symphony earlier this month."

"'From my perspective, it just doesn't seem worth the risk,' he said. He worried that a customs agent somewhere might confiscate his cello."

"And he had reason to worry."


Gene Therapy Shows Promise For A Growing List Of Diseases

"Eli Wheatley and Christian Guardino are among a growing number of patients whose lives are apparently being saved or radically improved by gene therapy."

"Wheatley, 3, of Lebanon, Ky., and Guardino, 17, of Patchogue, N.Y., were both diagnosed with what were long thought to be incurable genetic disorders. In the past, Wheatley's condition would have probably killed him before his first birthday. Guardino's would have blinded him early in life."

"But after receiving experimental gene therapies, both seem to be doing fine."

"'It's a very exciting time for the field,' says Carrie Wolinetz, the associate director for science policy at the National Institutes of Health."

"So far, gene therapy has only been tested on a relatively small number of patients who have been followed for relatively short periods of time. Many more patients will have to be studied for longer periods before anyone really knows how well the therapies work, how long the benefits last, and whether the therapies are safe."



Thousands Flee Bali's Mount Agung After Volcano Threat Level Is Raised

"Residents, tourists and climbers are being told to stay far away from Mount Agung, a large volcano in Bali where hundreds of shallow volcanic earthquakes have been recorded in recent days. The volcano's last eruption, in 1963, killed more than 1,000 people."

"The Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation raised the alarm on Friday."

"'The disaster mitigation agency said 48,540 people had fled and the number was expected to rise because more than 60,000 people lived in the danger zone,' Agence France-Presse reports."

"Agung is the highest point in Bali. An eruption would likely bring deadly threats from a rain of heavy ash, as well as from pyroclastic flares (volcanic stones) and pyroclastic flows (lava)."


Confessions Of A 'Big Bang' Watcher, 11 Seasons In

"Imagine you're looking at a Venn diagram of people who really liked Darren Aronofsky's mother! and people who watch CBS's The Big Bang Theory. It is a very small circle next to a very big circle. Now, look closer. Closer. Closer. Do you see that tiny area of overlap? Do you see that there is one lonely person inside of it, waving? That's me. I like weird art movies that are maybe about annoying poets and about the Bible and might be saying something about herbalism? And I also like The Big Bang Theory. Well, sort of."

"Despite the show's popularity, when I tell people I sort of like it, they often react as if I had said, "I have a raccoon in my desk. It does not have rabies, probably." By this, I mean that they are (1) surprised, (2) curious, (3) wary, and (4) gone quickly. And also that (5) I feel like they like me a little bit less. So as my gift to you, and so that you never again have to be the person on Twitter saying, "IS THAT STILL ON? WHO LIKES THIS SHOW?" I am stepping forward. It is still on! I still enjoy it! I am not sure whether I should! I watch screeners of it ahead of time! I own several seasons of it on DVD!"

"A disclosure: the original title of this post was "I Say Bazinga, They Say Po-tah-to." I say this to acknowledge that part of me is, always was, and always shall be a fan of the worst, dopiest, corniest jokes you could conceive of. Have you ever had a notion strike you along the lines of, "The joke I just thought of is so stupid, and yet I am devastated that I have no one to tell it to"? If you have, it's only because I am not beside you. Keep this in mind. It might be relevant."



PHOTOS: A 4-Year Mission To Present A New Vision Of Beauty

"Romanian photographer Mihaela Noroc spent nearly four years shooting portraits of — and collecting stories about — women from around the world."

"The product of her vision — and her travels to 50 countries — can be seen in her book The Atlas Of Beauty, hitting shelves Tuesday."

"The project, she says, began as something "very genuine and sincere" that she financed, initially, with her own savings — and by being frugal in her backpacking adventure. She later crowd-funded, including a Facebook campaign in March."

"NPR's Lulu Garcia-Navaro spoke with the 31-year-old via phone from Berlin about her photography. This interview has been edited for length and clarity."


How Many Viruses Can Live In Semen? More Than You Might Think

"When it comes to microbes in sexual organs, the vagina and its fluids seem to garner most of the attention. Heck, there is even a consortium dedicated specifically to studying which critters live and thrive in its confines."

"Really, who can blame scientists? The vagina's microbiome — or all the bacteria and viruses that inhabit it — can influence all sorts of health aspects, including the risk of miscarriage and HIV infection."

"But now, the gentlemen are getting some attention on this front. And it's not bacteria we're talking about."

"Semen can be a hotbed for viruses, scientists report in the November issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. At least 27 viruses can live in the fluid, including Ebola, Marburg, chikungunya and Lassa fever."

"Doctors at the University of Oxford compiled a full list after analyzing more than 3,800 studies."


In Devastated Dominica, 'Hams' Become Vital Communications Link

"When Hurricane Maria smashed into the tiny island of Dominica in the Eastern Caribbean earlier this week, phone service went down, virtually cutting off the island. But within hours, amateur radio operators got on the air and have been providing a vital link to the outside world ever since."

"Speaking to ABS Television/Radio in his first interview since Maria made landfall, Dominican Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit, on a visit to Antigua, said at least 15 people were dead and at least 20 others missing amid "unprecedented" destruction."

"An estimated 95 percent of roofs on homes in some towns were blown off in the 160-mph winds brought by the hurricane, which topped out at Category 5 when it hit the island. Debris-strewn roads are impassable, he said. "We have to access villages by sea and also by helicopter," said Skerrit, whose own home was among those severely damaged in the storm."


Are We About To See A Black Hole?

"If there is one thing science is good for, it's going to extremes."

"A lot of science's history is just one story after another of people figuring out how to do something that, just a few years before, was thought to be impossible."

"The impossible was heavy on my mind last Wednesday as I found out just how close we were to seeing — as in taking actual pictures — of black holes."

"Charles Gammie is a computational astrophysicist. Like me, he uses supercomputers to simulate the behavior of fluids in space (i.e gases or plasmas). Unlike our group at the University of Rochester, however, Gammie's research group studies black holes and the spinning disks of gas that form around them. I consider him to be one of the best of my generation of computationalists. On top of that, he's also a really nice guy. It was during his visit last week that I learned just how far a project called the Event Horizon Telescope (or EHT) has gotten in the project of seeing black holes."


Black, Jewish And Avoiding The Synagogue On The High Holy Days

"Last time I worshipped in a synagogue was Sept. 5, 2014. And I won't be going today."

"That might surprise my friends, who put up with my bragging ad nauseam about how Jewish I am."

"You got a great deal on plane tickets? Reminds me of the time I took a free Birthright trip to Israel. Going skating? I haven't been on skates since my bat mitzvah reception, held at the roller skating rink in Villanova, Pa. You say you love the musicals of George Gershwin? Ha, that sounds just like Gershenfeld, my mother's maiden name, which is also my middle name, which means "barley field" in Yiddish, the language my ancestors spoke in Eastern Europe."

"Some of this is just me being obnoxious. But it's also a way to claim a part of my identity that's hidden from most people. I'm a black woman. No one ever assumes I'm Jewish. When I talk about Judaism, people look at me in a way that makes me feel like I'm breaking into my own house. Especially the people inside the house."


The Dollar Is Weaker, But That Might Not Be A Bad Thing

"The dollar is down nearly 10 percent since the beginning of the year. That's bad news if you're a tourist traveling to Europe, but great news if your U.S. company sells goods overseas."

"The greenback's tumble against a basket of currencies reflects both positive and negative trends, analysts say."

"The biggest factor in the dollar's decline is doubts among currency investors that the Trump administration will be able to put in place pro-growth policies, says Jens Nordvig, CEO of Exante Data, a financial advisory firm."

"'There was a lot of hope that we were going to get a big tax reform; there was a lot of hope that we were going to get fiscal expansion' in the form of government spending on infrastructure and consumer spending fueled by tax cuts, Nordvig says."


'The Taking Of K-129': How The CIA Stole A Sunken Soviet Sub Off The Ocean Floor

"In 1968 — the middle of the Cold War — the Soviet submarine K-129 disappeared, taking with it its 98-member crew, three nuclear ballistic missiles and a tempting treasure trove of Soviet secrets. Without the technology to retrieve it from the ocean floor, the Soviet Union left it there. It was considered lost — until the CIA stepped in."

"Josh Dean's new book, The Taking of K-129, tells the true story of Project Azorian, a secret CIA mission to lift the submarine from a depth of more than 3 miles into a custom-built ship called the Hughes Glomar Explorer."

"'There had been no salvage of a submarine below 1,000 feet at that point,' Dean says. ' ... [It's] probably the greatest feat of naval engineering. And on top of that, you had to do it in secret because it's not like a giant ship parked in the middle of the Pacific — where giant ships aren't normally parked — isn't going to arouse suspicion.'"