NPR Picks


The 'Pop Art' Of Armenia's Revolution Is ... Calligraphy?

"Under a little white tent at the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington, D.C., an artist named Ruben Malayan is teaching kids and visitors how to write the letter "A" in Armenian calligraphy."

"Little do they know that Malayan, 47, is the creator of the iconic protest posters that became a symbol of Armenia's revolution in April. A report from Al-Jazeera in May called Malayan's placards the 'pop art of the revolution.'"

"Using a mix of traditional calligraphy and bold block script, Malayan hand-painted placards that said 'defend the revolution' and 'be brave' — then gave them away to people in the streets. Protesters pressured Prime Minister Serzh Sargsyan to step down. A few weeks later, he did."

"In June, he came to the U.S. for two weeks to share the art of Armenian calligraphy at the Smithsonian festival."

"In workshops, he demonstrated how to ink letters onto paper using a pen with a flat metal nib. His strokes — black line after black line, in perfect symmetrical succession — are hypnotic."



Way Beyond Pluto, An Icy World Is Ready For Its Close-Up

"About a billion miles beyond Pluto, a spacecraft is closing in on an icy minor planet — a mysterious little place that's only about 20 miles across."

"If all goes well, NASA will start the new year with the most far-off exploration of a world ever, flying past it about 2,200 miles from the surface while taking images with an onboard telescope and camera. The closest approach will be at 12:33 a.m." ET on Jan 1.

"'Really, we have no idea what to expect,' Alan Stern, principal investigator of NASA's New Horizons mission, said during a recent news conference."

"The New Horizons probe is about the size of a grand piano. It has been flying through space for more than a dozen years. In 2015, it reached Pluto, and what had long been just a fuzzy circle in photographs was revealed to be a stunning, dark-reddish world made of frozen nitrogen and methane, with ice mountains."

"'The exploration of Pluto that we conducted was scientifically spectacular,' Stern said."



Social Worker Led Frugal Life To Leave Nearly $11 Million To Children's Charities

"Friends remember Washington state social worker Alan Naiman as being frugal. He wore old shoes held together with duct tape, bought his apparel at the grocery store, drove jalopies and ate at cheap restaurants. But when he died of cancer in January 2018, at age 63, the people around him learned that he had quietly saved millions for a higher cause."

"Naiman left most of his $11 million estate to organizations serving abandoned, impoverished, sick and disabled children."

"'He left it all to charities — mostly to kids, the section of society that couldn't really help themselves,' his friend Shashi Karan told NPR."

"Naiman had no spouse or biological children. But his elder brother, who was disabled and died in 2013, "kind of colored the way he looked at things," his friend Susan Madsen told The Associated Press."

"Before spending two decades at Washington's Department of Social and Health Services, where he reportedly earned about $67,200 a year, Naiman was a banker."

"'He made a career change into social services probably around the time he was fostering,' Washington State Department of Children, Youth and Families spokeswoman Debra Johnson told NPR. A dedicated and valued employee, he shared fond memories of the children he fostered, she said."

"Despite living a modest life, he amassed a great deal of wealth by saving his work wages, taking on side jobs and inheriting millions from his parents."

"Before he was diagnosed with cancer, Naiman thought about taking more road trips or moving to a house with a view, Karan said. But those dreams receded after the diagnosis. Instead, he spent his time researching charities."


2018 Was A Milestone Year For Climate Science (If Not Politics)

"2018 was a hot year — in fact, the fourth warmest on record. The only years that were, on average, warmer were the past three, according to the World Meteorological Organization."

"It has been warming for decades now. But 2018 brought several major new and markedly more precise reports from scientists about what climate change is doing to the weather and how dire they expect the consequences to be."

"That didn't stop President Trump and others from continuing to question the evidence."

"'Is there climate change?' Trump said to reporters from Axios on HBO in November. 'Yeah. Will it go back like this?' he added, motioning up and down with his hand. "I mean will it change back? Probably. That's what I think.'"

"Another politician who weighed in on the clear evidence of a warmer planet was Republican Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas, when he was campaigning this past fall."


'Miracle' Boy Survives Avalanche After Being Buried Alive For 40 Minutes

"A 12-year-old boy survived 40 minutes buried under an avalanche in the French Alps on Wednesday, a feat rescuers called a 'miracle.'"

"The boy was skiing on an off-piste section of the slopes at the La Plagne ski resort in Bourg Saint-Maurice when he was swept away and separated from his group, French police told the Associated Press."

"According to officials, he was going down the slope ahead of seven other skiers and 'was caught when a large section of snow detached and roared down the mountain.' The deluge of snow, ice and rocks carried the boy at least 110 yards but it's unclear how deeply he was buried."

The region of the Alps where the avalanche occurred had a massive snowfall earlier this month, after a late start to the ski season, which kept many local resorts shuttered longer than expected. Courchevel, where La Plagne is located, had about 15 inches of snow over a single weekend and although that brought some relief to business owners, it created a high risk of avalanches.



Sicily Is Shaken By Earthquake As Mount Etna Erupts Once Again

"First came the eruption. Then, the quake."

"An overnight earthquake, triggered by Mount Etna's eruption two days ago, caused injuries and damage in Eastern Sicily early Wednesday morning. The volcano has been spewing ash and lava has flowed down its slopes since it began erupting on Monday."

"The quake registered 4.8 magnitude, according to Italian news agency ANSA, which reported 600 people were displaced by the temblor. Officials said the quake was one of about 1,000 tremors — most of them small — related to Etna's eruption, The Associated Press reports."

"NPR's Sylvia Poggioli reports that Italy's Civil Protection Agency set up temporary shelters for those whose homes were damaged or who were too frightened to go home."

"At least 10 people were injured, according to the AP, and others sought medical care for panic attacks or shock."

"A section of a major roadway was closed, as was the railway along the Ionian coast, ANSA reported."


There's A Lot At Stake In The Weekly U.S. Drought Map

"Crippling drought this year has caused more than $1 billion in damage. As it's played out, anyone affected by the drought or trying to manage it has turned to a once obscure map that's become key to understanding what's happening: the U.S. Drought Monitor."

"That includes water planners who decide resource allotments. Farmers who need water for their livelihood. Federal bureaucrats who use the map to calculate aid for the Livestock Forage Disaster Program."

"And then there are citizen scientists like Dave Kitts outside of Sante Fe, N.M."

'I think it's a little obsessive, but I check it every Thursday,' says Kitts, who's lived on the same 2-acre spread in New Mexico for decades. Dry years like this past one can crust the soil and kill his pinyon trees."

"'It's just upsetting and depressing to me,' he says. 'And when it moves the other direction it definitely lifts my spirits.'"

Scientist Mark Svoboda started the drought map 20 years ago, when Congress took an interest after drought struck Washington, D.C. He directs the National Drought Mitigation Center at The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.



Dow Suffers Record-Breaking Christmas Eve Losses

"The stock market was only open for half a day Monday, and that was more than enough time for the Dow Jones Industrial Average to drop 2.9 percent to 21,792.20, breaking 1918's record for the worst Christmas Eve performance."

"Other U.S. indexes fell too. The Nasdaq lost 2.2 percent to 6,192.92. The Standard & Poor's 500 index fell 2.7 percent to 2,351.10."

"U.S. stocks are on track for their worst year since 2008, which was during the Great Recession, and their worst December since 1931, which was during the Great Depression."

"The markets have been dealing with concerns of a slowing global economy, the trade dispute with China and last week's interest rate increase — the fourth by the Federal Reserve this year."

"Over the weekend, reports surfaced that President Trump was asking advisers if he could legally fire Fed Chairman Jerome Powell. Trump nominated Powell last year to take over the Fed, but since interest rates began rising, Trump has upped his rhetoric against Powell."



Gingerbread Cred: Bakers Craft Winning Edible Art Down To The Last Detail

"Nadine Orenstein never expected to judge gingerbread houses. But several years ago, the curator in the Department of Drawings and Prints at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art happened to see a program on the Food Network about a competition in Asheville, N.C., and was intrigued by the intricate — and edible — Christmastime entries. She happened to mention the show to a colleague, who happened to know one of the judges, who happened to be on the lookout for a new judge to add to the panel."

"The rest, as they say, is history. Fourteen years later, Orenstein is still a judge for the National Gingerbread House Competition, which in November celebrated its 26th year at Asheville's Omni Grove Park Inn. 'In a way, it's very similar to what I do as a career and, in some ways, completely different,' she says."

"The biggest difference, of course, is that each entry must be entirely edible — although it's fairly rare for the judges to actually eat the sweet creations — and must consist of at least 75 percent gingerbread. Disco dust and hologram powder are permitted, according to the rules, while no entrant under the age of 13 may use hot sugar, for safety reasons. And don't be fooled by the name of the competition, because the entries are not limited to houses — dragons, pirate ships and bonsai trees are also welcome."

"When it comes to judging, however, it's the details that loom large, even when they might only measure a few millimeters. Nothing escapes the eagle eyes of the judges, from a wall that is just slightly off-kilter to meticulously hand-painted playing cards."



Huge Martian Crater 'Korolev' Appears Topped With Miles Of Pristine Snow

"New images of Mars show an enormous crater that measures nearly 51 miles across and is filled with ice year-round, the European Space Agency reported."

"Known as the Korolev Crater, located near the Martian north pole, it's topped by 'what appears to be a large patch of fresh, untrodden snow – a dream for any lover of the holiday season,' said a statement by ESA, which released the images Thursday."

"But the space agency noted that the red planet is "a little too distant for a last-minute winter getaway." (Mars is about 140 million miles from Earth, according to NASA. The distance can vary considerably, because each planet moves in its own orbit around the sun.)"

"The Martian crater was named after Sergei Korolev, the chief architect of the Soviet space program. Korolev, who died in 1966, worked on missions to the moon and Mars, and the launch of Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite."

"The floor of the icy crater is more than a mile below its rim, which helps create a phenomenon called a cold trap, keeping the ice stable and permanently frozen, ESA said."



Researchers Show Parachutes Don't Work, But There's A Catch

"Research published in a major medical journal concludes that a parachute is no more effective than an empty backpack at protecting you from harm if you have to jump from an aircraft."

"But before you leap to any rash conclusions, you had better hear the whole story."

"The gold standard for medical research is a study that randomly assigns volunteers to try an intervention or to go without one and be part of a control group."

"For some reason, nobody has ever done a randomized controlled trial of parachutes. In fact, medical researchers often use the parachute example when they argue they don't need to do a study because they're so sure they already know something works."

"Cardiologist Robert Yeh, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and attending physician at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, got a wicked idea one day. He and his colleagues would actually attempt the parachute study to make a few choice points about the potential pitfalls of research shortcuts."

"They started by talking to their seatmates on airliners."


Scientists Find A Brain Circuit That Could Explain Seasonal Depression

"Just in time for the winter solstice, scientists may have figured out how short days can lead to dark moods."

"Two recent studies suggest the culprit is a brain circuit that connects special light-sensing cells in the retina with brain areas that affect whether you are happy or sad."

"When these cells detect shorter days, they appear to use this pathway to send signals to the brain that can make a person feel glum or even depressed."

"'It's very likely that things like seasonal affective disorder involve this pathway,' says Jerome Sanes, a professor of neuroscience at Brown University."

"Sanes was part of a team that found evidence of the brain circuit in people. The scientists presented their research in November at the Society for Neuroscience meeting. The work hasn't been published in a peer-reviewed journal yet, but the researchers plan to submit it."

"A few weeks earlier, a different team published a study suggesting a very similar circuit in mice."


Gatwick Airport Shuts Down After Drones Fly Near Its Runway

"Flights in and out of Britain's Gatwick Airport are suspended, after drones were spotted flying over its airfield Wednesday night and Thursday morning. The cancellations, which now extend to at least 4 p.m. local time, triggered chaos for passengers as the effects rippled outward from the busy airport."

"Two drones were seen flying over the airfield south of London around 9 p.m. local time Wednesday night, Gatwick said in a tweet. The airport was able to briefly open around 3 a.m., but more drone reports followed."

"'I have a drone on my airfield,' Gatwick's Chief Operating Officer Chris Woodroofe told the BBC."


Green 'Christmas Comet' Visible In Night Sky

"This month, a comet called 46P/Wirtanen is doing a dramatic fly-by, giving Earth an unusually good view of its greenish glow."

"The timing of the comet's apparition — and its seasonally appropriate coloring — have led some to dub it the 'Christmas Comet.'"

"On Sunday, Wirtanen's proximity to Earth placed it in the top 10 of Earth's modern 'comet close encounters,' according to the University of Maryland's astronomy department. And few of those other close-proximity comets were bright enough to see with the naked eye, as Wirtanen is."

"'This will be the closest comet Wirtanen has come to Earth for centuries and the closest it will come to Earth for centuries,' Paul Chodas, manager of the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., said in a statement."

"On Sunday night, at its closest point, the comet was about 30 times as far away as the moon. While that evening offered the prime viewing opportunity, the comet will continue to be visible from some locations worldwide for several more days."


Magical Photos Bring Fables From Mbomo To Life

"Traditional fables from the Republic of Congo are collected in a new book, Congo Tales: Told By The People Of Mbomo — and illustrated with painterly photos that have a touch of magical realism."

"Eva Vonk, a Dutch film producer, came up with the concept for Congo Tales. It's the first project from a new multimedia series called "Tales of Us," which aims to communicate the importance of protecting remote ecosystems and the people who live there."

"Over the course of three years, Vonk, along with a local radio producer and a community activist, gathered tales told by people all over the Mbomo district in the Congo Basin, the second-largest tropical rainforest in the world. It's home to thousands of plant and animal species and to people as well."

"The basin is under threat from mining and logging, according to the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies."


Medical Detectives: The Last Hope For Families Coping With Rare Diseases

"All over the country, specialized teams of doctors are giving hope to families who are desperately searching for a diagnosis."

"The medical sleuths, scattered across 12 clinics nationwide, form the Undiagnosed Disease Network. Since the program began in 2014, they've identified 31 previously unknown syndromes and they've cracked more than a third of their cases, according to a recent paper in the New England Journal of Medicine."

"'It was like Sherlock Holmes,' says Euan Ashley, a professor of medicine at Stanford University.' Patients would come with mystery diseases and we would try to solve them.'"

"Although rare diseases are individually very uncommon, collectively they are surprisingly pervasive. In fact, if grouped together into a single category, they afflict between 25 to 30 million Americans."

"For people coping with mystery conditions, finally getting a diagnosis can be life-saving or life-changing. Take the perplexing case of the two Miller boys from Marin County."


After More Than 4,000 Years, Vibrant Egyptian Tomb Sees The Light Of Day

"More than four millennia after being chiseled by Egyptian artisans, the intricate hieroglyphics and stone carvings of an ancient tomb have been uncovered."

"Egyptian officials made the announcement Saturday at the site of the discovery in Saqqara, outside of Cairo, according to multiple media reports. Photographs of the tomb show a narrow doorway leading to a rectangular room, its walls covered with carved symbols, images and human forms. Particularly striking are their well-preserved colors – light yellows, rich blues and a reddish-brown skin tone."

"'The color is almost intact even though the tomb is almost 4,400 years old,' said Mostafa Waziri, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, according to Reuters. He told reporters the find was 'one of a kind in the last decades."

"This rediscovered site is part of a massive complex that has proven invaluable to historians and researchers, as described by the magazine Archaeology:


"Thousands of tombs are spread across an area nearly four miles long and nearly a mile wide, and covering more than 3,000 years of complex Egyptian history. ... Saqqara has yielded some of antiquity's most compelling art and architecture, from the magnificent complex of Djoser, which set the standard for future pharaonic tombs, to intimate, carved stone friezes picturing some of the most moving scenes of daily life in ancient Egypt.'"



Wolves Are Back In Germany, But Not Always Welcome

"Wolves are making a big comeback in Germany, which is making some Germans uneasy."

"Farmers and hunters drove the species out of the country over 150 years ago, but conditions for wolves became more welcoming in 1990, after Germany's reunification extended European endangered species protections to the eastern part of the country."

"Since 2000, the Central European gray wolves have been moving back, mostly from Poland. In Brandenburg state, which surrounds Berlin, the number of known wolf packs jumped from zero in 2007 to 26 this year, according to the state's environmental office."

"That has come as a shock to many farmers, who now have to worry about protecting livestock from predators. They don't lose many animals to wolves nationally, but the few incidents that happen can be dramatic. In April, at least 40 sheep were killed in a single attack, and news reports described the aftermath as looking 'like horror.'"

"At an anti-wolf rally in November in Brandenburg's capital of Potsdam, farmer Marco Hintze said farmers should once again have the right to shoot at wolves."


As Climate Changes, Is Eating Raw Oysters Getting Riskier?

"Former North Dakota lawmaker Rae Ann Kelsch died last month at age 58 after eating raw oysters at a New Orleans restaurant. The alleged culprit: a fast-moving bacterial infection — linked to consuming raw or undercooked shellfish — that caused her organs to shut down."

"The place where Kelsch ate oysters has not been publicly released."

"Oysters have long been a trademark of southern cuisine, but they also pose health risks for some."

"'There's always going to be a small amount of risk,' says Dr. Fred Lopez, who studies infectious disease at Louisiana State University's Health Sciences Center."

"Lopez says the biggest danger comes from a pervasive bacteria called Vibrio vulnificus, which is what reportedly killed Kelsch."

"Vibrio vulnificus naturally thrives in brackish waters where the temperature is above 68 degrees Fahrenheit. As a result, it's actually more common in the Gulf of Mexico, where the waters are warmer, than on the East and West coasts."

"'If you're consuming a raw oyster that comes from the Gulf Coast waters ... particularly in the summer months,' says Lopez, 'You have to assume that it has Vibrio vulnificus.'"




Former NFL Player Tim Green Has A New Opponent — ALS

"Tim Green first noticed the symptoms about five years ago."

"The former NFL player, whose strength was a job requirement, suddenly found his hands weren't strong enough to use a nail clipper. His words didn't come out as fast as he was thinking them."

"'I'm a strange guy,' Tim says. 'I get something in my head and I can just run with it. I was really afraid I had ALS. But there was enough doubt that I said 'alright, I don't. Let's not talk about it. Let's not do anything.'"

"Denying pain and injury had been a survival strategy in football."

"I was well trained in that verse," he says.