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"Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues."

"Carnosine and carnitine were discovered by Russian chemist V.Gulevich.[2] Researchers in Britain,[3] South Korea,[4] Russia[5][6] and other countries[7][8][9] have shown that carnosine has a number of antioxidant properties that may be beneficial. Carnosine has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydesformed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress."

"Carnosine can oppose glycation[10][11] and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Chronic glycolysis is suspected to accelerate aging.[12] Carnosine was found to inhibit diabetic nephropathy by protecting the podocytes and mesangial cells."

"Carnosine containing products are also used in topical preparations to reduce wrinkles on the skin."

"Some studies have detected beneficial effects of N-acetylcarnosine in preventing and treating cataracts of the eyes; in one of these, carnosine was found to reduce cloudiness in rat lenses that were exposed to guanidine to cause cataracts.[15] However, claims that carnosine confers these and other posited ophthalmological benefits are, as yet, insufficiently supported for endorsement by the mainstream medical community; Britain's Royal College of Ophthalmologists, for instance, has asserted that neither safety nor efficacy has been sufficiently demonstrated to recommend carnosine's use as a topical treatment for cataracts."

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